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tls

tls configures HTTPS connections. Since HTTPS is enabled automatically, this directive should only be used to deliberately override default settings. Use with care, if at all.

Casket supports SNI (Server Name Indication), so you can serve multiple HTTPS sites from the same port on your machine. In addition, Casket implements OCSP stapling for all qualifying certificates. Casket also automatically rotates all TLS session ticket keys periodically.

The tls directive will ignore sites that are explicitly defined to be http:// or are on port 80. This allows you to use the tls directive in a server block that is shared with both HTTP and HTTPS sites.

If not all the hostnames are not known when starting the server, you can use the On-Demand TLS feature, which issues certificates during the TLS handshake rather than at startup. Alternatively, if you just have more subdomains than CA rate limits allow, you can enable the DNS challenge and obtain a single wildcard certificate.

WARNING

Casket ships with sane defaults for cipher suites, curves, key types, and protocols. Their exact selection and ordering may change at any time with new releases. You probably do not need to change them yourself. Adjust the TLS configuration at your own risk.

Casket does not disambiguate between different or conflicting TLS configurations with the same hostname as the key. If a TLS configuration is customized, then any other TLS configuration keyed by the same hostname must match, or at least be compatible, or it is an error. This includes cipher suites, curve preferences, etc.

Syntax

casketfile
tls off

Disables TLS for the site. Not recommended unless you have a good reason. With TLS off, automatic HTTPS is also disabled, so the default port (2015) will not be changed.

casketfile
tls email
  • email is the email address to use with which to generate a certificate with a trusted CA. By providing an email here you will not be prompted when you run Casket.

Although the above syntax is not needed to enable TLS, it allows you to specify the email address used for your CA account, instead of prompting for one or using another one from a previous run.

To use Casket with your own certificate and key:

casketfile
tls cert key
  • cert is the certificate file. If the certificate is signed by a CA, this certificate file should be a bundle: a concatenation of the server's certificate followed by the CA's certificate (root certificate usually not necessary).
  • key is the server's private key file which matches the certificate file.

Specifying your own certificate and key disables automatic HTTPS, including the changing of the port and redirecting HTTP to HTTPS. You will need to do that yourself if you are managing your own certificates.

You can use this directive multiple times to specify multiple certificate and key pairs.

Or to have Casket generate and use an untrusted, self-signed certificate in memory that lasts 7 days (enough for local development):

casketfile
tls self_signed

The above syntaxes use Casket's default TLS settings with your own certificate and key or a self-signed certificate that lasts for 7 days: it intended for local development only.

Advanced users may open a settings block for more control, optionally specifying their own certificate and key:

casketfile
tls [cert key] {
  ca        uri
  protocols min max
  ciphers   ciphers...
  curves    curves...
  clients   [request|require|verify_if_given] clientcas...
  load      dir
  ask       url
  key_type  type
  dns       provider
  alpn      protos...
  must_staple
  wildcard
}
  • ca specifies the ACME-compatible Certificate Authority endpoint to request certificates from.
  • cert and key are the same as above.
  • protocols specifies the minimum and maximum protocol versions to support. See below for valid values. If min and max are the same, it need only be specified once.
  • ciphers is a list of space-separated ciphers that will be supported, overriding the defaults. If you list any, only the ones you specify will be allowed and preferred in the order given. See below for valid values. Customizing cipher suites is not allowed with TLS 1.3.
  • curves is a list of space-separated curves that will be supported in the given order, overriding the defaults. Valid curves are listed below.
  • clients is a list of space-separated client root CAs used for verification during TLS client authentication. If used, clients will be asked to present their certificate by their browser, which will be verified against this list of client certificate authorities. A client will not be allowed to connect if their certificate was not signed by one of these root CAs. Note that this setting applies to the entire listener, not just a single site. You may modify the strictness of client authentication using one of the keywords before the list of client CAs:
    • request merely asks a client to provide a certificate, but will not fail if none is given or if an invalid one is presented.
    • require requires a client certificate, but will not verify it.
    • verify_if_given will not fail if none is presented, but reject all that do not pass verification.
    • The default, if no flag is set but a CA file found, is to do both: to require client certificates and validate them.
  • load is a directory from which to load certificates and keys. The entire directory and its subfolders will be walked in search of .pem files. Each .pem file must contain the PEM-encoded certificate (chain) and key blocks, concatenated together.
  • ask enables On-Demand TLS. On-Demand TLS is NOT recommended if the hostname is given in the Casketfile and known at configuration-time. The URL will be queried via GET and should return a 200 status code if the domain form value from the query string is allowed to be given a certificate. Redirects at this endpoint are not followed. The URL should only be internally accessible. When using this option, Casket does not enforce any extra rate limiting; your endpoint is expected to make wise decisions instead.
  • key_type is the type of key to use when generating keys for certificates (only applies to managed or TLS or self-signed certificates). Valid values are rsa2048, rsa4096, rsa8192, p256, and p384. Default is currently p256.
  • dns is the name of a DNS provider; specifying it enables the DNS challenge (see that link for details). Note that you need to give credentials via environment variables for it to work.
  • alpn is a list of space-separated protocols to use for Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN). For HTTPS servers, HTTP versions can be enabled/disabled with this setting. Default is h2 http/1.1.
  • must_staple enables Must-Staple for managed certificates. Use with care.
  • wildcard will obtain and manage a wildcard certificate for this name by replacing the left-most label with *, as long as managed TLS with the DNS challenge is enabled. Any sites which are configured similarly and have the same resulting wildcard name will then share the same, single certificate. This will not work with On-Demand TLS because it uses the SNI value for the certificate name.

    WARNING

    Do not use this feature unless you have many subdomains that would otherwise cause you to hit CA rate limits.

Protocols

The following protocols are supported, in descending order of preference:

  • tls1.3 (default max)
  • tls1.2 (default min)
  • tls1.1
  • tls1.0

Note that setting the minimum protocol version lower may allow very old clients to connect, but at the risk of a false sense of security.

Supported protocols and default protocol versions may be changed at any time.

Cipher Suites

The following cipher suites are currently supported:

  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-WITH-CHACHA20-POLY1305
  • ECDHE-RSA-WITH-CHACHA20-POLY1305
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES256-CBC-SHA
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES128-CBC-SHA
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CBC-SHA
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-CBC-SHA
  • RSA-AES256-CBC-SHA
  • RSA-AES128-CBC-SHA
  • ECDHE-RSA-3DES-EDE-CBC-SHA
  • RSA-3DES-EDE-CBC-SHA

INFO

Cipher suites cannot be customized when TLS 1.3 is used.

INFO

The HTTP/2 spec blacklists over 275 cipher suites for security reasons. Unless you know what you're doing, it's best to accept the default cipher suite settings.

Cipher suites may be added to or removed from Casket at any time. Similarly, the default cipher suites may be changed at any time.

Curves

The following curves are supported for EC cipher suites:

  • X25519
  • p256
  • p384
  • p521

Summary of Features

In summary, Casket implements these TLS features for you automatically. It is the only server to do so by default:

  • Session identifiers
  • Session ticket key rotation
  • OCSP stapling
  • Dynamic record sizing
  • Application-layer protocol negotiation
  • Forward secrecy
  • HTTP/2 (for the HTTP server)
  • Certificate management (including auto-renew)
  • Man-In-The-Middle detection (for HTTPS sites)

Most sites will not even use the tls directive. It is not needed to use these features.

Examples

Remember, TLS is enabled by default, and this directive is not usually needed! These examples are for advanced users who manage certificates manually or need custom settings.

Serve with HTTPS using a certificate and private key located one folder up:

casketfile
tls ../cert.pem ../key.pem

Obtain certificates during TLS handshakes as needed, after consulting a backend for permission:

casketfile
tls {
  ask http://localhost:9095/should-obtain-cert
}

Load all certificates and keys from .pem files found in /www/certificates:

casketfile
tls {
  load /www/certificates
}

Serve a site with a self-signed certificate in memory (untrusted by browsers, but convenient for local development):

casketfile
tls self_signed